In the OP below, Peter contended that Morality cannot be objective.
What could make morality objective?
- To be objective, there must be an object [moral judgment] that is a matters of fact [state of affairs], falsifiable and independent of judgement, belief or opinion.
A state-of-affairs either is or isn't the case. So its existence is independent from what anyone believes or claims to know; and the truth-value of a factual assertion - one that asserts a state-of-affairs - is independent from what anyone believes or claims to know.
A fact is either a state-of-affairs or a description of a state-of-affairs.
So a moral fact, if there is such a thing, is either a moral state-of-affairs or a description of a moral state-of-affairs.
The above argument is very problematic because Peter has a very shallow and narrow perspective of Philosophy which is confined dogmatically to the Principles of Analytic Philosophy;
One will note from ‘googling’ there are loads of criticism and condemnation of Analytic Philosophy.
Isaiah Berlin, Critic of Analytic Philosophy
https://digressionsnimpressions.typepad ... sophy.html
Analytic Philosophy is heavily criticized by philosophers from Continental Philosophy.
Personally I agree Analytic Philosophy merely has limited utility but it is not The Philosophy of Philosophy as the analytic philosophers are dreaming it to be.
When Peter insists moral facts do not exist, he is only claiming upon the conditions of the Framework of Analytics Philosophy which has its specific meaning of fact, state-of-affair, objectivity, propositions, accounts of truth, truth-bearers, obtaining, objects, properties, relations and exemplification and other terms.
In addition, Peter’s analytic view is also based on Philosophical Realism;
Point is, Analytic Philosophy and Philosophy Realism are not realistic, i.e. the ultimate referent of their principles are illusory.In metaphysics, realism about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme. In philosophical terms, these objects are ontologically independent of someone's conceptual scheme, perceptions, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc.
Since Peter is leveraging fundamentally on illusion, he has no grounds to claim what is ‘objective’ and that Morality is not objective.
My realistic perspective is;
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Objectivity_(philosophy)Objectivity is a philosophical concept of being true independently from individual subjectivity caused by perception, emotions, or imagination. A proposition is considered to have objective truth when its truth conditions are met without bias caused by a sentient subject.
Scientific objectivity refers to the ability to judge without partiality or external influence, sometimes used synonymously with neutrality.
My view of what is an object is different from the “object” of Analytic Philosophy which is fundamentally illusory.
What is ‘object’ to me is an emergence which the subject as co-contributor to that emergence.
My view of what is fact is not the ‘fact’ as defined by Analytic Philosophy, but rather;
What is fact is thus conditioned by how the fact is derived from a Framework of Knowledge. As above a linguistic fact is justified and derived from a Linguistic Framework.A fact is a thing that is known to be consistent with objective reality and can be proven to be true with evidence.
For example, "This sentence contains words." is a linguistic fact, and
"The sun is a star." is a cosmological fact.
Further, "Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States." and "Abraham Lincoln was assassinated." are also both facts, of history.
All of these statements have the epistemic quality of being "ontologically superior" to opinion or interpretation — they are either categorically necessary or supported by adequate documentation.
Moral facts [similar to scientific facts] are derived from a Framework of Knowledge, i.e. the Moral Framework, thus are objective, i.e. independent of the individual[s] opinion and beliefs.
Moral facts in this case are Justified True Moral Beliefs, i.e. objective.
Example: “No human ought to prevent another human from breathing” is a moral fact derived from a specific Moral Framework.
Therefore there are moral facts which are objective, thus morality is fundamentally is objective.